Mark Twain, : be careful in loving someone Angelina Jolie : We have someone who monitors that. Ileana Adriana Stan : Jesus, as someone divine, must go. Popularity rank by frequency of use someone 1 Select another language:. Powered by CITE. Are we missing a good definition for someone? Don't keep it to yourself Submit Definition. The fingerspelling provided here is most commonly used for proper names of people and places; it is also used in some languages for concepts for which no sign is available at that moment. There are obviously specific signs for many words available in sign language that are more appropriate for daily usage.
Edited by Pam Weintraub. The Someone Project is an exploration of our scientific knowledge of the minds of farmed animals. One example is cognitive judgment bias, also known as optimism and pessimism.
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We all know the feeling of being able to take on the world when bolstered by good experiences and praise. And, unfortunately, we also know what it feels like to give up when we are pummelled by bad experiences. Cognitive bias is a deviation in judgment as a result of emotional experiences. How we interpret ambiguous stimuli or situations depends upon whether we are depressed or anxious, or feeling on top of the world. Pigs, chickens, sheep and cows feel it too.
Just treat cows, sheep or chickens roughly through exposure to loud noise or the presence of a predator, or any other uncontrollable negative condition, and assess how they perform on a typical discrimination task differentiating between two stimuli to get a reward. Just like you, all that stress biases their brains and ability to do well.
In one study , sheep had to learn to discriminate between two buckets marked with different visual patterns horizontal versus vertical stripes and respond by walking over to either end of the room to the bucket associated with food. Sheep who experienced prior aversive events were compared with an unexposed group. When confronted with this simple task, the stressed-out sheep were more reluctant to approach the buckets and made more errors than their unexposed counterparts.
After a tough life, they view the world through the opposite of rose-coloured glasses.
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Sound familiar? The fact is that several scientific studies show sheep in despair, with physiological signs of stress and depression when subject to unpredictable and uncontrollable conditions such as the sudden appearance of a new object while they are eating.
Learned helplessness is seen in sheep, in other farmed animals, in many animals in zoos and marine parks, in lab animals, and, yes, in humans who experience continued hard knocks throughout life, especially as children. O ne of the most insidious misconceptions about farmed animals indeed almost all animals aside from human ones is that they do not care about their young, who do not need a mother for normal development.
Aeon for Friends
This mythology of emotional detachment has become the lore for chickens, cows, turkeys and other farmed animals. But what is the evidence for this convenient fabrication? At first blush, it is irrational to think that any mammal or even vertebrate would be indifferent to their offspring. If that were the case, none of us would be here now. Instead, there is ample evidence that farmed animals care very much about being able to raise their offspring.
Several studies show that calves must be brought up by their mothers to be socially well-adjusted. Young calves allowed to stay with their mothers grow up more socially confident with other cows.
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Conversely, cows prevented from being raised by their mothers show more fearful responses to novel situations and unfamiliar cows. Dairy calves raised in more complex social groups in general tend to have increased coping abilities and higher capacities for dealing with change. The same effects are seen for piglets and lambs.
For starters, mothers need to be able to send out their offspring into the world well-prepared, and that means weaning them on a natural timescale. But no factory-farmed animals are afforded this basic necessity. Sheep naturally wean at six months, but on factory farms mother and offspring are separated at between one and two months. Cows naturally wean between six and nine months, but dairy cows are separated within 24 hours. Pigs naturally wean at about three months, but mother and piglets are typically separated within days on factory farms.
And the situation for chickens is just as severe. If left on her own, a hen will look after her chicks for between six and eight weeks. Under factory-farming conditions, layer hens never get to see their offspring, and chicks raised for meat are killed at six weeks of age, still peeping the sound of a baby chick even though their bodies have been genetically manipulated to balloon to the size of an adult. What are the psychological consequences of these extreme practices?
Just what you would expect — mother cows running after their abducted newborns, bellowing and restlessly searching when they are gone. When ewes mother sheep are separated from their lambs before weaning, they let out high-pitched vocalisations, pace, and even urinate.
And studies suggest that early separation from the mother has negative psychological impacts on lambs throughout progressive phases of their social development. Lambs artificially weaned at a very early age show less vocalising and movement, are generally more socially withdrawn, and exhibit abnormal, repetitive oral behaviours. She spent all her time trying to protect the chicks, literally taking them under her wings when humans were around. Maternal bonding and concern are not restricted to mammals. When mother hens receive a mildly aversive puff of blown air, they do not respond particularly strongly.
Meet uber-mother June. June came from a cockfighting operation in New York City hens themselves are not made to fight but are kept in confined conditions as breeders where she spent all her time trying to protect her chicks and the chicks of other hens from the abuses of the situation, literally taking them under her wings when humans were around. Fortunately for June, she was rescued and went to Farm Sanctuary where she need not fear humans.
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