The word "pope" means father. This marked the beginning of the Roman Catholic Church. Today there are an estimated 1. They make up almost 18 percent of the world population. The pope still heads the church, and priests are urged to remain celibate.
Learn More About Church History! What do you think? God , the Father, sent His only Son to satisfy that judgment for those who believe in Him. Jesus , the creator and eternal Son of God, who lived a sinless life, loves us so much that He died for our sins, taking the punishment that we deserve, was buried , and rose from the dead according to the Bible. If you truly believe and trust this in your heart, receiving Jesus alone as your Savior, declaring, " Jesus is Lord ," you will be saved from judgment and spend eternity with God in heaven.
What is your response? Or Philosophically? Is the Bible True? Co-operation, Paris , pp. Hundreds of thousands of children abused in Catholic and Protestant 'care homes' in Germany between to link.
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Pope John Paul II ignored the abuse of 2, boys in Austria over decades and covered up 'innumerable' cases of abuse link. Catholic Church sends paedophile priests to South American churches link and here. Tens of thousands of children abused by Catholic priests in Ireland between to link. Hundreds of Catholic priests abused children in the Philippines between to link. Thousands of children and adults abused in Catholic 'care homes' in Scotland in the 60's and 70's link.
Thousands of children tortured and abused in Catholic schools in Switzerland between to link. Roman Catholic crusaders slaughter approximately 20, citizens of Beziers, France on July 22, Both Albigensian Christians and Catholics were slain. By the time the Roman Catholic armies finished their crusade, almost the entire population of southern France mostly Albigensian Christians has been exterminated reference Link 1 and Link 2.
During her reign, nearly men and woman are burned to death at the stake.
Her victims include bishops, scholars, and other Protestant leaders Link. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. The soldiers kill at least 10, Protestants during the first three days. At least more Protestants are killed as the slaughter spreads to the countryside Link. This bloody, religious war is planned, instigated, and orchestrated by the Roman Catholic Jesuit order and its agents in an attempt to exterminate all the Protestants in Europe.
Many countries in central Europe lose up to half their population see Cushing B. And Hundreds of thousands were forced to convert to Catholicism. The following are quotes from the few available history books concerning Papal persecutions. In that authentic document, he stated, that within fifteen years, , of those crossed soldiers had become victims to their own fanatical and blind fury. Their unrelenting and insatiable thirst for Christian and human blood spared none within the reach of their impetuous despotism and unrestricted usurpations. On the river Garonne, a conflict occurred between the croisaders, with their ecclesiastical leaders, the Prelates of Thoulouse and Comminges; who solemnly promised to all their vassals the full pardon of sin, and the possession of heaven immediately, if they were slain in the battle.
The Spanish monarch and his confederates acknowledged that they must have lost , men, in that tremendous conflict, and immediately after it-but the Papists boasted, that including the women and children, they had massacred more than two millions of the human family, in that solitary croisade against the southwest part of France.
The number of Albigenses that perished in the twenty years war is estimated at from one to two millions. Or of the Irish rebellion, of the inhuman butchery of about fifteen millions of Indians in South America, Mexico and Cuba, by the Spanish papists? In short, it is calculated by authentic historians, that papal Rome has shed the blood of sixty-eight millions of the human race in order to establish her unfounded claims to religious dominion.
Brownlee's 'Popery an enemy to civil liberty', p. Of the Waldenses there perished ,; of the Albigenses, , After him, and frequently making use of his history, comes Hermias Sozomenus or Sozomen , also an advocate in Constantinople, whose "Church History" in nine books comprises the period from to P.
Hussey, Oxford, , but is inferior to that of Socrates. Both these writers are surpassed by the learned Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus died about , who, in his "Church History" P. Gaisford, Oxford, , a continuation of the work of Eusebius , describes in five books the period from the beginning of Arianism to the beginning of the Nestorian troubles In addition to the writings of his predecessors, Socrates and Sozomen , he also used those of the Latin scholar Rufinus, and wove many documents into his clear well-written narrative. Theodoret wrote also a "History of the Monks" P.
Like the famous "History of the Holy Fathers" "Historia Lausiaca", so called from one Lausus to whom the book was dedicated by Palladius , written about ; Migne , P. Theodoret also published a "Compendium of Heretical Falsehoods", i. Together with the similar "Panarion" of St. Epiphathus P. During the sixth century these historians, found other continuators.
Theodorus Lector compiled a brief compendium yet unedited from the works of the above-mentioned three continuators of Eusebius : Socrates , Sozomen , and Theodoret. He then wrote in two books an independent continuation of this summary as far as the reign of Emperor Justin I ; only fragments of this work have reached us P. Apart from this history, his inclination towards Monophysitism is also apparent from his biography of the Monophysite patriarch, Severus of Antioch, and from his biography of the monk Isaias, two works extant in a Syriac version Laud, op.
More important still is the "Church History" of Evagrius of Antioch, who died about the end of the sixth century. His work is a continuation of Socrates , Sozomen , and Theodoret, and treats in six books the period from to It is based on good sources, and borrows from profane historians but occasionally Evagrius is too credulous. For Nestorianism and Monophysitism , however, his work deserves careful attention P. Bidez and Parmentier in "Byzantine Texts" by J. Bury, London, Zotenberg, Paris, To the Alexandrian Cosmas, known as the "Indian Voyager" we owe a Christian "Topography" of great value for ecclesiastical geography ed.
Montfaucon, "Collectio nova Patrum et Scriptor. Geizer, Leipzig, The most important collection of the early Greek historians of the Church is that of Henri de Valois in three folio volumes Paris, ; improved by W. The ancient Syrian writings of ecclesiastico-historical interest are chiefly Acts of martyrs and hymns to the saints "Acta martyrum et sanctorum", ed. Bedjan, Paris, The "Chronicle of Edessa ", based on ancient sources, was written in the sixth century ed.
Assemani, "Bibliotheca orientalis", I, In the same century the Monophysite bishop , John of Ephesus , wrote a history of the Church, but only its third part to is preserved ed. Cureton, Oxford, ; tr. Lengthy extracts from the second part are found in the annals of Dionysius of Telmera. His work covers the years fragments in Assemani, "Bibliotheca orientalis", II, 72 sqq. Among the Armenians we meet with versions of Greek and Syriac works.
The most important native Armenian chronicle of an ecclesiastico-historical character is ascribed to Moses of Chorene , an historical personage of the fifth century. The author of the "History of Greater Armenia " calls himself Moses of Chorene , and claims to have lived in the fifth century and to have been a disciple of the famous St. Mesrop q. The self-testimony of the compiler must be rejected, since the work makes use of sources of the sixth and seventh centuries, and there is no trace of it to be found in Armenian literature before the ninth century.
Probably, therefore, it originated about the eighth century. In the known manuscripts the work contains three parts: the "Genealogy of Greater Armenia " extends to the dynasty of the Arsacides , the "Middle Period of our Ancestry" to the death of St. In the Middle Ages there was still extant a fourth part. The work seems to be on the whole reliable. The ancient history, down to the second or third century after Christ, is based on popular legends.
Another Armenian historian is St. Comprehensive ecclesiastico-historical works appear in the Latin West later than in the Greek East. The first beginnings of historical science are confined to translations with additions. Thus St. Jerome translated the "Chronicle" of Eusebius and continued it down to At the same time he opened up a special field, the history of Christian literature, in his "De viris illustribus" ; "Chronicon", ed. Schoene, 2 vols. Richardson, Leipzig, Rufinus's continuation was itself soon translated into Greek.
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The latest edition is in the Berlin collection of Greek Christian writings mentioned above in connexion with Eusebius. Jerome's Latin recension of the "Chronicle" of Eusebius was followed later by many other chronicles, among which may be mentioned the works of Prosper, Idacius, Marcellinus, Victor of Tununum , Marius of Avenches, Isidore of Seville , and Venerable Bede.
In the West, the first independent history of revelation and of the Church was written by Sulpicius Severus, who published in his "Historia Chronica Sacra" in two books; it reaches from the beginning of the world to about P. Hahn, Vienna, It is a short treatise and contains little historical information. It begins with the deluge and comes down to The purpose of Orosius was to refute the pagan charge that the great misfortunes of the Roman Empire were due to the victory of Christianity P.
Zangemeister, Vienna, With the same end in view, but with a far grander and loftier conception, St. Augustine wrote his famous "De civitate Dei" , composed between and , and issued in sections. It is an apologetic philosophy of history from the standpoint of Divine revelation.
Dombart, 2nd ed. About the middle of the sixth century, Cassiodorus caused the works of Socrates , Sozomen , and Theodoret to be translated into Latin, and then amalgamated this version into one complete narrative under the title "Historia tripartita" P. Together with the works of Rufinus and Orosius, it was one of the principal sources from which through the Middle Ages the Western peoples drew their knowledge of early church history.
Rich material for ecclesiastical history is also contained in the national histories of some Western peoples. Of the "History of the Goths", written by Cassiodorus , we possess only an extract in Jordanis, "De origine actibusque Getarum" ed. Mommsen in "Mon. Hist: Auct. Especially important is the "History of the Franks " in ten books by Gregory of Tours , which reaches to ed.
Arndt, "Mon. Hist: Scriptores rerum Meroving. Juliani" and "De virtutibus S. Martini" ed. II, ad. In the beginning of the seventh century St. Mommsen, "Chronica Minora", II, The Church historians of the second period The second period of church history, it is true , produced a copious historical literature, although it belongs rather to special than to general church history. Its works deal more often with particular nations, dioceses , and abbeys ; general histories are rare.
Moreover, owing to the dominant position of the Church among the Western peoples, ecclesiastical and profane history are in this epoch closely interwoven. In the East church history is almost completely identified with the history of the imperial court owing to the close relations of State and Church. For the same reason the Byzantine chronicles from Justinian the Great to the destruction of the empire in the middle of the fifteenth century contain much valuable information about the history of the Greek Church.
The most important of them are: the "Chronography of Theophanes Isaacius" ed. The only true church historian of the Byzantine period worthy of the name is Nicephorus Callistus, who flourished in the beginning of the fourteenth century. In Syriac we possess the aforesaid chronicle of Dionysius of Telmera.
Towards the end of the twelfth century Michael Kandis, Patriarch of the Jacobites died , wrote a chronicle from the creation to It is an important source for the history of the Syriac Church after the sixth century, particularly for the history of the Crusades. This work has reached us in a thirteenth century Armenian version; a French translation was published by Langlois, "Chronique de Michel le Grand" Venice, We must also mention the "Bibliotheca" Myriobiblon of Photius died , in which about authors are described and passages quoted from them ed.
Becker, Berlin, , and the work "On Heresies" of St. John Damascene. Throughout this period the West was furnishing abundant material for ecclesiastical history, but few genuinely historical works. Public life moved in narrow circles; a speculative tendency ruled in the centres of intellectual activity; consequently, ecclesiastico-historical works of a general character accorded ill with the spirit of the age, and during the whole period from the eighth to the fifteenth century the West offers only a few works of this class.
Boxhorn, Leyden, ; P. Subsequently with the aid of Latin versions of Georgius Syncellus , Nicephorus, and especially of Theophanes , to which he added his own material, the Roman Abbot Anastasius Bibliothecarius the Librarian wrote a "Church History" to the time of Leo the Armenian , who died in Migne , P.
About the middle of the twelfth century, Ordericus Vitalis , Abbot of St. Evroul in Normandy , wrote an" Historia ecclesiastica" in thirteen books; it reaches to , and is of especial value for the history of Normandy, England , and the Crusades ed. Le Prevost, 5 vols.
His work in twenty-four books reaches to , and was continued to by Henry of Diessenhofen ed. The most extensive, and relatively the best, historical work during this period is the "Summa Historialis" of St. It deals with profane and ecclesiastical history from the creation to The national histories which appeared towards the end of the last period of Cassiodorus , Jordanis, Gregory of Tours , were followed by similar works giving the history of other peoples.
Venerable Bede wrote his admirable "Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum", which describes in five books the history of England from the Roman conquest to , though treating principally of events after St. Augustine's mission in ed. Stevenson, London, ; ed. Hussey, Oxford, Paulus Warnefrid Diaconus wrote the history of his fellow-Lombards Historia Langobardorum from to ; it still remains the principal source for the history of his people.
An unknown writer continued it to , and in the ninth century the monk Erchembert added the history of the Lombards of Beneventum to ed. Waitz in "Mon.
Hist: Script. Paulus wrote also a history of the bishops of Metz "Gesta episcoporum Mettensium", ad. Lappenberg in "Mon. Among the special historical works of this period of the Western Church we must mention the "Liber Pontificalis" , an important collection of papal biographies that take on larger proportions after the fourth century, are occasionally very lengthy in the eighth and ninth centuries, and through various continuations reach to the death of Martin V in ed. Duchesne, 2 vols. Mommsen, I, extending to , Berlin The German, Italian, French, and English chronicles, annals, and biographies of this epoch are very numerous.
London, ; for Belgium : "Collection de Chroniques belges", I sqq. Delisle, Paris, ; for Germany : "Monumenta Germ. Other important collections are: L. Benedicti" 9 vols. The best guide to the sources of medieval history is Potthast, "Bib. The Church historians of the third period With the sixteenth century a new epoch dawned for ecclesiastical history. Under fresh and vigorous impulses it perfected its methods of investigation and narration, and assumed a daily more important place in the intellectual life of the educated classes.
Historical criticism went hand in hand with the growth of humanist education. Henceforth, before their testimony was accepted, the sources of historical events were examined as to their authenticity. The religious controversies that followed the rise of Protestantism were also an incentive to historical study. Printing made possible a rapid distribution of all kinds of writings, so that the sources of church history soon became known and studied in the widest circles, and new works on church history could be circulated in all directions.
In this period also the development of church history may be considered in three divisions. From the middle of the sixteenth to the middle of the seventeenth century The first large work on church history which appeared in this period was composed in the interests of Lutheranism. Mathias Flacius, called Illyricus a native of Illyria , united with five other Lutherans John Wigand, Mathias Judex, Basilius Faber, Andreas Corvinus, and Thomas Holzschuher , to produce an extensive work, that should exhibit the history of the Church as a convincing apology for strict Lutheranism.
The work called forth many refutations, the most able of which was written by Card. Urged by St. Philip Neri , he undertook in the task of producing an ecclesiastical history, which with astounding diligence he brought down to the end of the twelfth century and published under the title, "Annales ecclesiastici" 12 vols.
Numerous editions and continuations of it have appeared. From the middle of the seventeenth to the end of the eighteenth century Catholic Church historians From the middle of the seventeenth century French writers were active in ecclesiastico-historical research.
The writings of the Fathers of the Church and other ancient sources were published in excellent editions, the auxiliary sciences of history were well cultivated. Although the Jesuit Louis Maimbourg did not write a continuous ecclesiastical history, he published numerous treatises Paris, on various important phases in the life of the Church Arianism , Iconoclasm , Greek Schism, struggle between the popes and the emperors, Western Schism , Lutheranism , and Calvinism.
Among the great ecclesiastical historians of this period, whose works have a permanent value, three names stand out prominently. To these must be added the great Bossuet , who, in his "Discours sur l'histoire universelle" Paris, , treated in masterly fashion the history of the Church as far as Charlemagne. The Christian philosophy of history found in him an exponent of sublime genius. These French church historians of the seventeenth century are far superior to their successors in the eighteenth.
Several French writers, it is true , produced elegant narratives, if we consider only external form, but they do compare unfavourably with their predecessors in criticism of their sources and in scientific accuracy. The well-known names of Cardinals Noris , Bona , and Pallavicini, Archbishop Mansi of Lucca , the Vatican librarian Zacagni, the learned Ughelli , Roncaglia, Bianchini , Muratori, the brothers Pietro and Girolamo Ballerini , Gallandi , and Zaccaria, are enough to indicate the character and extent of historical research carried on in the Italian peninsula during the eighteenth century.
A church history of similarly vast proportions was undertaken by the Oratorian Sacarelli. A third work, of an even more comprehensive nature and reaching to the beginning of the eighteenth century, was written by the French Dominican , Hyacinthe Graveson, resident in Italy , "Historia ecclesiastica variis colloquia digesta" 12 vols.
Mansi continued it in two volumes to In Spain , general church history found no representatives among the ecclesiastical writers of the eighteenth century. Manuel Risco continued it to the forty-second volume, and, since his death, it has been carried still nearer to completion, the fifty-first volume appearing in The other countries of Europe also failed to produce original works on the general history of the Church. The conditions of Catholics about this time were too unfavourable to permit the undertaking of extensive scientific histories.
Some masterly special works appeared in Germany , monographs of particular dioceses and monasteries , but general church history was not cultivated until Joseph II had executed his reform of theological studies. Even then there appeared only small works, mostly excerpted from the great French ecclesiastical histories, superficial, Josephinistic in temper, and hostile to Rome. The Netherlands also produced only compendia, e.
Chefneux "Eccl. Needless to add, in Great Britain and Ireland the sad condition of Catholics made scientific work impossible. Protestant Church historians It was long after the publication of the "Magdeburg Centuries" see above before Protestant scholars again undertook extensive independent work in the province of church history. Their momentous division into Reformed and Lutherans on the one hand, and the domestic feuds among the Lutherans on the other, engrossed the minds of the Protestants. When Protestant scholarship again busied itself with ecclesiastico-historical research, the Reformed Churches took the lead and retained it into the eighteenth century.
This was true not only in the domain of special history, in which they issued important publications e. Among their writers on this subject we must mention Hottinger, whose "Historia ecclesiastica Novi Test.
The Catholic Church: A History
The Reformed Churches produced moreover a number of manuals of church history, e. Turettini, "Hist. Similar Protestant manuals appeared in England , e. Milner , "History of the Church of Christ" 4 vols. During the seventeenth century, the Lutherans produced little of value in the field of church history, other than a much used "Compendium histor.
But a new era in Lutheran ecclesiastical historiography dates from Arnold's "Unparteiische Kirchen- und Ketzerhistorie" 2 vols. This pietist author is friendly to all the sects , but bitterly inimical to the Catholic Church and to orthodox Lutheranism. His standard is neither dogma nor Scripture, but subjective "interior light".
Superior to the works of all preceding Lutheran writers, both because of their thoroughness and their dignified diction, are the Latin historical writings of Joh. Mosheim, particularly his "De rebus christ. They betray, however, a tendency towards a rationalistic concept of the Church , which appears throughout as an institution of secular origin. His "Institutiones" were translated into German and continued by two of his pupils, J. Schlegel Leipzig, ; Heilbronn, Special works, excellent for their time, were written by the two Walchs—Joh.
Georg Walch issuing "Eine Geschichte der Reigionsstreitigkeiten innerhalb und ausserhalb der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche" in two parts, each comprising five volumes Jena, while his son Christian Wilhelm published a lengthy "ketzergeschichte", whose eleventh volume reaches to the Iconoclasts Leipzig, The most important Lutheran work on general church history is that of J.
The whole work, scholarly but too diffuse and laying excessive emphasis on the biographical element, includes forty-five volumes and closes with the beginning of the nineteenth century.
History of the Catholic Church
Meanwhile the shallow rationalism of the eighteenth century had spread widely, and soon affected many works on church history. The works of Joh. Most of his contemporaries were more or less openly rationalistic , and church history became a chronicle of scandals Scandalchronik. Everywhere the writers saw only superstition , fanaticism, and human passion, while the greatest and holiest characters of ecclesiastical history were shamefully caricatured. This spirit is particularly characteristic of Spittler, "Grundriss der Gesch. Kirche" and Henke "Allgem.
Geschichte der chr. The horrors of the French Revolution led to a vigorous reaction and gave birth to a more ideal spirit in literature.
A Concise History of the Roman Catholic Church
Patriotism and religious zeal revived and exerted a favourable influence on all intellectual life. Romanticism led to a juster appreciation of the Catholic medieval world , while in all departments of learning there appeared an earnest desire to be objective in judgment. Finally, the sources of ecclesiastical history were studied and used in a new spirit, the outgrowth of an ever more definite and penetrating historical criticism.
The general result was favourable to the science of history.